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练功中呼吸应用问题

2019-03-11 11:37:53 admin 阅读(2937)

「导读」练功中呼吸应用问题

练功中呼吸应用问题

1、调息原则:气功的调息原则也要自然。自然呼吸和初学停顿呼吸,都不要吸的太满或呼的太长,以免引起头晕头胀头痛,个别会引起心悸、胸闷、腹痛等症。在练停顿或呼气停顿也都要自然,不可勉强,停顿不是闭气,吸气和呼气都留有余地。抓闭呼吸则又要求吸的越满越好,呼气吐的越长越好,这要注意辨证选用呼吸法。呼吸系统、心脑血管系统有病的不可用或在医生指导下应用。患者练功切忌猛呼,以免出现偏差,造成不良后果。呼吸锻炼上也是循序渐进,水到渠成,不可急于追求呼吸效果。

2、呼吸次数减少问题:练功中的呼吸次数各流派功法几科都没有统一标准,要因人而异。平时的生理呼吸男性为每分钟15次左右,女性为18次左右。运动员和久练气功的人,呼吸次数相对减少,有的每分钟可减少到每分钟1次或更少,但这也只能在练功达到入静状态后才能达到,不入静则达不到这种效果,初学者更不易达到。所以呼吸次数减少是长期锻炼的结果,不是一朝一夕就成的。呼吸次数的多少又与治疗效果没有绝对关系,万万不可单纯追求减少次数同时注意气功的呼吸锻炼很少要求出声(除个别功法配合发音外),要绵绵若存。有声为喘本,是练功不好的表现,要予以纠正。

3、呼吸的通道:练功要求呼吸道通畅,如果有鼻病、喉病等要先治疗后再练功,以免影响效果。一般的呼吸法都采用鼻及鼻呼法,如内养功、强壮功、周天功等都要求鼻吸鼻呼;也有的功未能的呼吸要求鼻吸口呼,如吐纳法等;有的功未能则要求口鼻兼用,以动功为多,个别情况下还采用口吸鼻呼法。至于皮肤呼吸、意识呼吸、胎息的呼吸通道目前还说不清楚,这种呼吸是无形无象,主要是意念问题。这种呼吸主要用于养生、修练武术搏击之用,临床很少运用。我们主张练功时还是以鼻呼吸为好,从生理上讲鼻腔有过滤、湿润和加温空气的3个作用,符合人体生理需要。

4、呼吸时的伴随动作:由于功种不同,锻炼目的不同,有的功法练呼吸时要配合一些其它内容,综合起来可有4种:

(1)呼吸与默念配合:这种经较多见,在练呼吸时要默念一些字句,如内养功等要求在吸气、呼气和停顿时都可默念与健康有益的字句,如“自己静坐身体能健康”等。各流派有不同的默念内容,目的是协助调息入静,但默念字数不宜过多,以免引起憋气等副作用。

(2)呼吸与舌动配合:这种也较多见。在练呼吸时要把舌尖抵住上腭,还可伴随呼吸上下起落。如内养功的第1、2种呼吸法即是。舌动或舌抵上腭有排除阿念帮助入静作用;唾液分泌增多,有利于消化和增进食欲;有利于真气运行,可以打通任督二脉气的交流,古代称之胃“鹊桥”。但锻炼中注意舌抵(贴)上腭,而不是舌顶上腭。用力过强会引起舌体疼痛或头晕、头胀。

(3)呼吸与动作配合:此法多用于动功。一般的配合规律是按升降开合配合,如手抬起的动作或双手向外开的动作都配合吸合,而双手(或腿下蹲)下落,或向里合的动作都配合呼气。呼吸与动作配合锻炼可以提高锻炼效果,有利气血运行、疏通经络以治疗疾病,古代称此法为导引术。

(4)呼吸与意念配合:练呼吸进配合意念的锻炼也很多,如近代王竹林的《意气功》完全是配合呼吸让气从一个穴位走到另一个穴位。此外还有一些拳术如太极拳的动作、意念与呼吸也是不可分割的,所谓以意行气,意到气到,气到力到。

5、气沉丹田与腹式呼吸的形成:气功锻炼时要求气沉丹田,也称气贯丹田。这是由于长期的呼吸锻炼而形成的腹式呼吸,锻炼中的有意识的使膈肌上下活动幅度加大,用意念诱导气沉入小腹,在膈肌下降时推动腹腔内脏下移使小腹突起,感到气好象沉到小腹,这就是气沉丹田。初练时腹式呼吸难以形成,完全以意念引导,也可将双手放在小腹上作诱导物,慢慢会形成以小腹为中心起落的腹式呼吸,有时小腹还会感到发热,这是腹式呼吸形成后的效果,是元气上升的表现,有的人这种热流还传导到身体其他部位,如全身和四肢,但最多见的是热流向会阴、尾闾、后腰背部传导,这是真气运行的表现,古代称此步功为周天筑基功,可见腹式呼吸锻炼的重要性。但在锻炼中也不可盲目追求形式,一味使劲鼓肚子,这样会感到吃力和疲劳,使力过大还会引起腹痛甚至腹泻。要循序渐进,大约要1个月左右即可以形成这种腹式呼吸,个别的可能稍快一些。

临床实验证明,在腹式呼吸的同进拉长呼气时间,不注意吸气可加强呼气机转,对高血压、便秘、溃疡病、胃下垂、消化不良等有医疗作用。高血压患者不宜采用停顿法,避免因停顿引起紧张而使血压暂时上升。而低血压、肠蠕动过速、过敏性结肠炎等症可拉长吸气时间,不注意呼气,以加强吸气机转,达到医疗保健目的。


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article------>{"id":301,"cid":13,"sub_cid":"","title":"练功中呼吸应用问题","short_title":"0","tag_id":"","attr":"","seo_title":"0","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"1","source":"网络","author":"admin","description":"练功中呼吸应用问题","img":"","content":"<p><span style=\"display: inline !important;\">练功中呼吸应用问题</span></p>\n<p>1、调息原则:气功的调息原则也要自然。自然呼吸和初学停顿呼吸,都不要吸的太满或呼的太长,以免引起头晕头胀头痛,个别会引起心悸、胸闷、腹痛等症。在练停顿或呼气停顿也都要自然,不可勉强,停顿不是闭气,吸气和呼气都留有余地。抓闭呼吸则又要求吸的越满越好,呼气吐的越长越好,这要注意辨证选用呼吸法。呼吸系统、心脑血管系统有病的不可用或在医生指导下应用。患者练功切忌猛呼,以免出现偏差,造成不良后果。呼吸锻炼上也是循序渐进,水到渠成,不可急于追求呼吸效果。</p>\n<p>2、呼吸次数减少问题:练功中的呼吸次数各流派功法几科都没有统一标准,要因人而异。平时的生理呼吸男性为每分钟15次左右,女性为18次左右。运动员和久练气功的人,呼吸次数相对减少,有的每分钟可减少到每分钟1次或更少,但这也只能在练功达到入静状态后才能达到,不入静则达不到这种效果,初学者更不易达到。所以呼吸次数减少是长期锻炼的结果,不是一朝一夕就成的。呼吸次数的多少又与治疗效果没有绝对关系,万万不可单纯追求减少次数同时注意气功的呼吸锻炼很少要求出声(除个别功法配合发音外),要绵绵若存。有声为喘本,是练功不好的表现,要予以纠正。</p>\n<p>3、呼吸的通道:练功要求呼吸道通畅,如果有鼻病、喉病等要先治疗后再练功,以免影响效果。一般的呼吸法都采用鼻及鼻呼法,如内养功、强壮功、周天功等都要求鼻吸鼻呼;也有的功未能的呼吸要求鼻吸口呼,如吐纳法等;有的功未能则要求口鼻兼用,以动功为多,个别情况下还采用口吸鼻呼法。至于皮肤呼吸、意识呼吸、胎息的呼吸通道目前还说不清楚,这种呼吸是无形无象,主要是意念问题。这种呼吸主要用于养生、修练武术搏击之用,临床很少运用。我们主张练功时还是以鼻呼吸为好,从生理上讲鼻腔有过滤、湿润和加温空气的3个作用,符合人体生理需要。</p>\n<p>4、呼吸时的伴随动作:由于功种不同,锻炼目的不同,有的功法练呼吸时要配合一些其它内容,综合起来可有4种:</p>\n<p>(1)呼吸与默念配合:这种经较多见,在练呼吸时要默念一些字句,如内养功等要求在吸气、呼气和停顿时都可默念与健康有益的字句,如“自己静坐身体能健康”等。各流派有不同的默念内容,目的是协助调息入静,但默念字数不宜过多,以免引起憋气等副作用。</p>\n<p>(2)呼吸与舌动配合:这种也较多见。在练呼吸时要把舌尖抵住上腭,还可伴随呼吸上下起落。如内养功的第1、2种呼吸法即是。舌动或舌抵上腭有排除阿念帮助入静作用;唾液分泌增多,有利于消化和增进食欲;有利于真气运行,可以打通任督二脉气的交流,古代称之胃“鹊桥”。但锻炼中注意舌抵(贴)上腭,而不是舌顶上腭。用力过强会引起舌体疼痛或头晕、头胀。</p>\n<p>(3)呼吸与动作配合:此法多用于动功。一般的配合规律是按升降开合配合,如手抬起的动作或双手向外开的动作都配合吸合,而双手(或腿下蹲)下落,或向里合的动作都配合呼气。呼吸与动作配合锻炼可以提高锻炼效果,有利气血运行、疏通经络以治疗疾病,古代称此法为导引术。</p>\n<p>(4)呼吸与意念配合:练呼吸进配合意念的锻炼也很多,如近代王竹林的《意气功》完全是配合呼吸让气从一个穴位走到另一个穴位。此外还有一些拳术如太极拳的动作、意念与呼吸也是不可分割的,所谓以意行气,意到气到,气到力到。</p>\n<p>5、气沉丹田与腹式呼吸的形成:气功锻炼时要求气沉丹田,也称气贯丹田。这是由于长期的呼吸锻炼而形成的腹式呼吸,锻炼中的有意识的使膈肌上下活动幅度加大,用意念诱导气沉入小腹,在膈肌下降时推动腹腔内脏下移使小腹突起,感到气好象沉到小腹,这就是气沉丹田。初练时腹式呼吸难以形成,完全以意念引导,也可将双手放在小腹上作诱导物,慢慢会形成以小腹为中心起落的腹式呼吸,有时小腹还会感到发热,这是腹式呼吸形成后的效果,是元气上升的表现,有的人这种热流还传导到身体其他部位,如全身和四肢,但最多见的是热流向会阴、尾闾、后腰背部传导,这是真气运行的表现,古代称此步功为周天筑基功,可见腹式呼吸锻炼的重要性。但在锻炼中也不可盲目追求形式,一味使劲鼓肚子,这样会感到吃力和疲劳,使力过大还会引起腹痛甚至腹泻。要循序渐进,大约要1个月左右即可以形成这种腹式呼吸,个别的可能稍快一些。</p>\n<p>临床实验证明,在腹式呼吸的同进拉长呼气时间,不注意吸气可加强呼气机转,对高血压、便秘、溃疡病、胃下垂、消化不良等有医疗作用。高血压患者不宜采用停顿法,避免因停顿引起紧张而使血压暂时上升。而低血压、肠蠕动过速、过敏性结肠炎等症可拉长吸气时间,不注意呼气,以加强吸气机转,达到医疗保健目的。</p><p><br></p>","status":0,"pv":2937,"link":"1","createdAt":"2019-03-11 11:37:53","updatedAt":"2024-06-20 12:02:29","field":{},"tags":[]}

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