世界气功网

气功养生学历史简况(4)

2019-03-11 11:19:08 admin 阅读(1172)

「导读」气功养生学历史简况

明清两代的大型类书,如《永乐大典》及《古今图书集成》对气功文献的保存也起了重要作用。《永乐大典》原书二万二千八百十七卷,清后散失,现存七百多卷。仅在2949一卷中有关气功的词条就达55个之多。《古今图书集成》一万卷,在人事典及神异典中分别有养生部和静功部,艺术典的医部(即今《医部全录》)中也包括了不少清以前的气功疗法。

这一时期,丰富多彩的各派气功又有了新的发展,首先在历代导引法的基础上,明清时期又编造了不少形式简易、功效显著的新导引套路,如十二段锦、十二段动功、易筋经、延年九转法等。

再是运气功的确立。运气功渊源于古老的存思法,其基本形式是,在意念的支配下,让气沿着体内一定路线运行。此法在明清之际相当兴盛。如曹珩的《保生秘要》中就记载有运气功方法50余条,治疗范围包括内科、妇科常见病达60多种。

另外,静坐法在明清的学者中仍很流行,他们远承宋儒“半日读书,半日静坐”的遗风,主张知行合一,把静坐看作是“收放心”的一段功夫和“致良知”的一种手段。

在明清时期,中国气功发展的突出特点之一是某些传统的气功功法与武术锻炼相熔合,形成了独具特色的武术气功。这对现代气功概念的形成和某些功法的确立,都有着直接影响。

“气功”一词,由来已久,晋代已经出现,但其含义与现代“气功”不同。到明清时期,武术中出现的“气功”一词却孕育了现代气功概念的基本内涵。尊我斋主人《少林拳术秘诀﹒气功阐微》指出,气功之说有二,一养气、一练气。养气重在调神内养,练气重在调息炼形。

武术气功作为武术锻炼的基础功夫,其主要内容包括调神养气、吐纳呼吸、动功、站桩、硬功等方法。其中的前三项,其中上继承了传统的吐纳导引方法;站桩和硬功则是武术气功的两大典型功法。它对现代气功中某些功法的形成产生了巨大影响。

明清之际,气功医学的发展进入了历史上空前的繁荣时期。这时的气功医学得到了广泛的普及与提高。

明初医家王履在《医经溯洄集》中,发挥了《内经》“亢害承制”理论,指出:“且夫之气也,固亦有亢而自制者,苟亢而不能自制,则汤液、针石、导引之法以为之助”。

万全是十五世纪的儿科专家,擅长气功养生,对静坐有长期的亲身体会,著有《养生四要》,强调静坐中调心的作用。

明代中叶的徐春圃编有《古今医统大全》,内中记载了大量古代气功养生经验,其中包括行气等静功和导引等保健功内容。

同一时期的医药学家李时珍,也在古代气功发展史上写下了光辉的一页。他的《奇经八脉考》初当时喻为练功家和医家的“入室指南”。

张景岳在《类经》中指出:“若摄生者,必明确气之故……”,阐述了养生与调气的关系。

明末李中梓,著《删补颐生微论》,介绍了一些修摄方法,并对精、气、神理论和气功方法进行了论述。

清初的汪仞庵,著《医方集解》附有《勿药元诠》一卷,搜集了一些前人的练功方法,辑有调息、小周天、一秤金诀、金丹秘诀等功法。

晚清医家黄凯钧,著《一览延龄》,旁征博引,汇集了诸家有关气功养生论述和明清以前气功养生的异文轶事。

(八)气功养生学的低潮期—半殖民地半封建时期(公元1840年~1949年)

近百年来,由于清朝封建统治者的腐败无能,帝国主义列强的不断侵入,中国沦为半殖民地半封建社会。统治阶段全盘否定中华民族文化遗产,扼杀中医中药,对祖国传统医学采取民族虚无主义态度,使祖国医学饱受摧残,气功也几乎处于被湮没的境地。

清代后期,王祖源编著《内功图说》包括十二段锦总诀、图解、分行外功诀、易筋经、却病延年法等。该书主张动静兼修,并有图解加以说明。

席锡藩编绘的古代内外功图说,详细介绍了诸病导引治病、八段锦、易筋经等图说及按摩调息,总名《内外功图解辑要》。此外,郑观应编《中外卫生要旨》,对排除杂念入静作了简要叙述。

建国前夕,蒋维乔编《因是子静坐法》对呼吸锻炼和思想集中的养生方法作了简要的叙述,在当时有较大影响。但书中掺杂着一些消极的迷信色调,尤其书中只讲静坐,不讲动功,是一大缺点。

在讲静坐的书籍中,较为著名的还有丁福保著的《静坐法精义》,对练功有参考价值。陈乾明的《静的修养法》,简明扼要是其特点。杨中一的《指道真诠》则以收集资料丰富见长。

那时,我国翻译出版了部分日本的静坐书籍。日本在明治后期,曾揿起了静坐热潮。他们的书,在我国有一定影响。

总之,1949年以前,气功得不到应有的重视和发展,更谈不到普及与推广。


接口页面--全局数据:

site-> {"id":1,"name":"世界气功网","domain":"www.shijieqigong.com","email":"867528315@qq.com","wx":null,"icp":null,"code":"","json":"","title":"世界气功网官网","keywords":"世界气功网|气功|养生|动功|静功|内功|外功|吐纳|导引|止观","description":"世界气功网致力于传播正宗中国气功文化和养生知识,提供最新气功新闻与信息。在这里,您可以学习到各类气功技巧,如止观、静功、动功、内功、外功,呼吸吐纳等,以及养生、健康长寿等相关知识。弘扬健康文化,共享气功魅力!","createdAt":null,"updatedAt":"2023-11-20T11:30:24.000Z","template":null,"appid":null,"secret":null}

111-->

nav-> [{"id":1,"pid":0,"name":"气功新闻","pinyin":"qigongxinwen","path":"/qigongxinwen","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":24,"pid":23,"name":"内劲一指禅","pinyin":"neijinyizhichan","path":"/chuantonggongfa/neijinyizhichan","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":25,"pid":23,"name":"大雁功","pinyin":"dayangong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/dayangong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":26,"pid":23,"name":" 郭林新气功","pinyin":"guolinxinqigong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/guolinxinqigong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":27,"pid":23,"name":" 内养功","pinyin":"neiyanggong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/neiyanggong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":28,"pid":23,"name":"站桩功","pinyin":"zhanzhuanggong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/zhanzhuanggong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":29,"pid":23,"name":" 天柱养生功","pinyin":"tianzhuyangshenggong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/tianzhuyangshenggong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":2,"pid":0,"name":"学术交流","pinyin":"xueshujiaoliu","path":"/xueshujiaoliu","sort":2,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":3,"pid":0,"name":"体育气功","pinyin":"tiyuqigong","path":"/tiyuqigong","sort":3,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":4,"pid":0,"name":"医学气功","pinyin":"yixueqigong","path":"/yixueqigong","sort":4,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":5,"pid":0,"name":"养生气功","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","path":"/yangshengqigong","sort":5,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":8,"pid":0,"name":"气功医案","pinyin":"qigongyian","path":"/qigongyian","sort":8,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":9,"pid":0,"name":"气功与书画","pinyin":"qigongyushuhua","path":"/qigongyushuhua","sort":9,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":10,"pid":0,"name":"气功人物","pinyin":"qigongrenwu","path":"/qigongrenwu","sort":10,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":11,"pid":0,"name":"人体科学","pinyin":"rentikexue","path":"/rentikexue","sort":11,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":12,"pid":0,"name":"功法实践","pinyin":"gongfashijian","path":"/gongfashijian","sort":12,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":13,"pid":0,"name":"注意事项","pinyin":"zhuyishixiang","path":"/zhuyishixiang","sort":13,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":14,"pid":0,"name":"气功培训","pinyin":"qigongpeixun","path":"/qigongpeixun","sort":14,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":15,"pid":0,"name":"气功资料","pinyin":"qigongziliao","path":"/qigongziliao","sort":15,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":16,"pid":0,"name":"气功百科","pinyin":"qigongbaike","path":"/qigongbaike","sort":16,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":6,"pid":0,"name":"太 极","pinyin":"taiji","path":"/taiji","sort":17,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":23,"pid":0,"name":"传统功法","pinyin":"chuantonggongfa","path":"/chuantonggongfa","sort":18,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":30,"pid":0,"name":"气功博物馆","pinyin":"qigongbowuguan","path":"/qigongbowuguan","sort":27,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":31,"pid":0,"name":"气功术语","pinyin":"qigongshuyu","path":"/qigongshuyu","sort":28,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":32,"pid":0,"name":"李春生文集","pinyin":"lichunshengwenji","path":"/lichunshengwenji","sort":29,"target":"0","status":"1","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"}]

category-> [{"id":1,"pid":0,"name":"气功新闻","pinyin":"qigongxinwen","path":"/qigongxinwen","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":24,"pid":23,"name":"内劲一指禅","pinyin":"neijinyizhichan","path":"/chuantonggongfa/neijinyizhichan","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":25,"pid":23,"name":"大雁功","pinyin":"dayangong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/dayangong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":26,"pid":23,"name":" 郭林新气功","pinyin":"guolinxinqigong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/guolinxinqigong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":27,"pid":23,"name":" 内养功","pinyin":"neiyanggong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/neiyanggong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":28,"pid":23,"name":"站桩功","pinyin":"zhanzhuanggong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/zhanzhuanggong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":29,"pid":23,"name":" 天柱养生功","pinyin":"tianzhuyangshenggong","path":"/chuantonggongfa/tianzhuyangshenggong","sort":1,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":2,"pid":0,"name":"学术交流","pinyin":"xueshujiaoliu","path":"/xueshujiaoliu","sort":2,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":3,"pid":0,"name":"体育气功","pinyin":"tiyuqigong","path":"/tiyuqigong","sort":3,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":4,"pid":0,"name":"医学气功","pinyin":"yixueqigong","path":"/yixueqigong","sort":4,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":5,"pid":0,"name":"养生气功","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","path":"/yangshengqigong","sort":5,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":8,"pid":0,"name":"气功医案","pinyin":"qigongyian","path":"/qigongyian","sort":8,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":9,"pid":0,"name":"气功与书画","pinyin":"qigongyushuhua","path":"/qigongyushuhua","sort":9,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":10,"pid":0,"name":"气功人物","pinyin":"qigongrenwu","path":"/qigongrenwu","sort":10,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":11,"pid":0,"name":"人体科学","pinyin":"rentikexue","path":"/rentikexue","sort":11,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":12,"pid":0,"name":"功法实践","pinyin":"gongfashijian","path":"/gongfashijian","sort":12,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":13,"pid":0,"name":"注意事项","pinyin":"zhuyishixiang","path":"/zhuyishixiang","sort":13,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":14,"pid":0,"name":"气功培训","pinyin":"qigongpeixun","path":"/qigongpeixun","sort":14,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":15,"pid":0,"name":"气功资料","pinyin":"qigongziliao","path":"/qigongziliao","sort":15,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":16,"pid":0,"name":"气功百科","pinyin":"qigongbaike","path":"/qigongbaike","sort":16,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":6,"pid":0,"name":"太 极","pinyin":"taiji","path":"/taiji","sort":17,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":23,"pid":0,"name":"传统功法","pinyin":"chuantonggongfa","path":"/chuantonggongfa","sort":18,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":30,"pid":0,"name":"气功博物馆","pinyin":"qigongbowuguan","path":"/qigongbowuguan","sort":27,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":31,"pid":0,"name":"气功术语","pinyin":"qigongshuyu","path":"/qigongshuyu","sort":28,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},{"id":32,"pid":0,"name":"李春生文集","pinyin":"lichunshengwenji","path":"/lichunshengwenji","sort":29,"target":"0","status":"1","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"}]

friendlink-> [{"id":1,"title":"香港日报","link":"http://www.hongkongdaily.net","sort":0,"createdAt":"2023-07-22T14:59:55.000Z"}]

base_url-> /public/template/qigong

frag--->{"home-gjqg":"<p><img src=\"/public/uploads/qigong/20180621-19-20-16_10746_tj.jpg\" class=\"w-p100\" alt=\"\"></p>","home-hjtzx":"<p><img src=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/upload/2018-05-30/363d6fd4509b27c228fb9ec3deb0bc3e.jpg\" class=\"w-p100\" alt=\"\"></p>","home-sjqgwkt":"<h3 class=\"c-333 f-16 mb-5 mt-5\">世界气功网开通</h3>\n<p class=\"c-666 f-14\"><a href=\"/qigongxinwen/article-8.html\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener\">世界气功是由世界大健康运动联盟主办,面向世界,弘扬健康养生文化,传播优秀健身方法, 汇聚各国健康养生新信息新成果等信息服务。详情&gt;&gt;</a></p>","jituangongsi":"香港日报集团公司(中国香港)","info":"<p>免责申明:网站内容仅供参考!部分内容来源网络,如有侵犯版权,联系邮箱:867528315@qq.com 技术人员进行删除。</p>","doingCompany":"北京中知紫荆科技有限公司(中国北京)","company":"世界大健康运动联盟主办(中国香港)","xianggangribao":"<p class=\"mb-10 pos-r\"><a href=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/2014/2021/index.html\"> <img src=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/2014/2021/img/ad.jpg?v=20220127\" width=\"100%\"> <span class=\"years\">25</span></a></p>","yujia":"<img src=\"/public/uploads/qigong/20180621-19-20-50_18608_yj.jpg\" />","taiji":"<img src=\"/public/uploads/qigong/20180621-19-20-16_10746_tj.jpg\" />","fenglida":"<div style=\"display: flex; margin-top: 5px; justify-content: center; align-items: center; width: 100%; height: 120px; background-image: repeating-linear-gradient(0deg, hsla(208,43%,84%,0.09) 0px, hsla(208,43%,84%,0.09) 1px,transparent 1px, transparent 9px),repeating-linear-gradient(90deg, hsla(208,43%,84%,0.09) 0px, hsla(208,43%,84%,0.09) 1px,transparent 1px, transparent 9px),linear-gradient(90deg, hsl(203,93%,43%),hsl(203,93%,43%));\">\n<div style=\"width: 100px; height: 100px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.96); border-radius: 50%;\"><a href=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/fenglida/index.html\"><img style=\"width: 100px;\" src=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/fenglida/img/fenglida.png\" alt=\"\"></a></div>\n<a href=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/fenglida/index.html\" style=\"flex: 1; font-size: 38px; color: #fff; text-shadow: 0px 4px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.4), 0px 8px 13px rgba(0,0,0,0.1),0px 18px 23px rgba(0,0,0,0.1);\">隆重纪念冯理达教授诞辰99周年</a></div>","wushaozu":"<div style=\"display: flex; justify-content: center; align-items: center; margin-top: 5px; width: 100%; height: 120px; background-image: repeating-linear-gradient(0deg, hsla(124,22%,97%,0.09) 0px, hsla(124,22%,97%,0.09) 1px,transparent 1px, transparent 11px),repeating-linear-gradient(90deg, hsla(124,22%,97%,0.09) 0px, hsla(124,22%,97%,0.09) 1px,transparent 1px, transparent 11px),linear-gradient(90deg, hsl(202,76%,66%),hsl(202,76%,66%));\">\n<div style=\"width: 100px; height: 100px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.96); border-radius: 50%;\"><a href=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/wushaozu/index.html\"><img style=\"width: 100px;\" src=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/wushaozu/img/wushaozu.png\" alt=\"\"></a></div>\n<a href=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/wushaozu/index.html\" style=\"flex: 1; font-size: 38px; color: #fff; text-shadow: 0px 4px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.4), 0px 8px 13px rgba(0,0,0,0.1),0px 18px 23px rgba(0,0,0,0.1);\">隆重纪念伍绍祖同志诞辰85周年</a></div>","qianxuesen":"<div style=\"display: flex; margin-top: 10px; justify-content: center; align-items: center; width: 100%; height: 120px; background-image: repeating-linear-gradient(0deg, hsla(208,43%,84%,0.09) 0px, hsla(208,43%,84%,0.09) 1px,transparent 1px, transparent 9px),repeating-linear-gradient(90deg, hsla(208,43%,84%,0.09) 0px, hsla(208,43%,84%,0.09) 1px,transparent 1px, transparent 9px),linear-gradient(90deg, hsl(203,93%,43%),hsl(203,93%,43%));\">\n<div style=\"width: 100px; height: 100px; margin-left: 10px; margin-right: 10px; background-color: rgba(255,255,255,0.8); border-radius: 50%;\"><a href=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/qianxuesen/index.html\"><img style=\"width: 100px;\" src=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/qianxuesen/img/qianxuesen.png\" alt=\"\"></a></div>\n<a href=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/zhuanti/qianxuesen/index.html\" style=\"flex: 1; font-size: 38px; color: #fff; text-shadow: 0px 4px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.4), 0px 8px 13px rgba(0,0,0,0.1),0px 18px 23px rgba(0,0,0,0.1);\">隆重纪念著名科学家钱学森同志诞辰113周年</a></div>","disanjie":"<p><a href=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/hongkongdaily/2014/2023/index.html\"> <img src=\"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/shijieqigong/20210803-20-00-06_10426_banner-small.jpg?v=20211228\" width=\"100%\"> </a></p>"}

tag--->[{"id":4,"name":"pdf","path":"pdf"},{"id":3,"name":"开发工具","path":"devtool"},{"id":2,"name":"js库","path":"jslib"},{"id":1,"name":"cms","path":"cms"}]

-----------

position------>[{"id":5,"pid":0,"name":"养生气功","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","path":"/yangshengqigong","sort":5,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"}]

navSub------>{"cate":{"id":5,"pid":0,"name":"养生气功","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","path":"/yangshengqigong","sort":5,"target":"0","status":"0","list_view":"list.html","article_view":"article.html","seo_title":"","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"","type":"0"},"id":5}

article------>{"id":292,"cid":5,"sub_cid":"","title":"气功养生学历史简况(4)","short_title":"0","tag_id":"","attr":"","seo_title":"0","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"1","source":"网络","author":"admin","description":"气功养生学历史简况","img":"","content":"<p><span style=\"display: inline !important;\">明清两代的大型类书,如《永乐大典》及《古今图书集成》对气功文献的保存也起了重要作用。《永乐大典》原书二万二千八百十七卷,清后散失,现存七百多卷。仅在2949一卷中有关气功的词条就达55个之多。《古今图书集成》一万卷,在人事典及神异典中分别有养生部和静功部,艺术典的医部(即今《医部全录》)中也包括了不少清以前的气功疗法。</span></p>\n<p>这一时期,丰富多彩的各派气功又有了新的发展,首先在历代导引法的基础上,明清时期又编造了不少形式简易、功效显著的新导引套路,如十二段锦、十二段动功、易筋经、延年九转法等。</p>\n<p>再是运气功的确立。运气功渊源于古老的存思法,其基本形式是,在意念的支配下,让气沿着体内一定路线运行。此法在明清之际相当兴盛。如曹珩的《保生秘要》中就记载有运气功方法50余条,治疗范围包括内科、妇科常见病达60多种。</p>\n<p>另外,静坐法在明清的学者中仍很流行,他们远承宋儒“半日读书,半日静坐”的遗风,主张知行合一,把静坐看作是“收放心”的一段功夫和“致良知”的一种手段。</p>\n<p>在明清时期,中国气功发展的突出特点之一是某些传统的气功功法与武术锻炼相熔合,形成了独具特色的武术气功。这对现代气功概念的形成和某些功法的确立,都有着直接影响。</p>\n<p>“气功”一词,由来已久,晋代已经出现,但其含义与现代“气功”不同。到明清时期,武术中出现的“气功”一词却孕育了现代气功概念的基本内涵。尊我斋主人《少林拳术秘诀﹒气功阐微》指出,气功之说有二,一养气、一练气。养气重在调神内养,练气重在调息炼形。</p>\n<p>武术气功作为武术锻炼的基础功夫,其主要内容包括调神养气、吐纳呼吸、动功、站桩、硬功等方法。其中的前三项,其中上继承了传统的吐纳导引方法;站桩和硬功则是武术气功的两大典型功法。它对现代气功中某些功法的形成产生了巨大影响。</p>\n<p>明清之际,气功医学的发展进入了历史上空前的繁荣时期。这时的气功医学得到了广泛的普及与提高。</p>\n<p>明初医家王履在《医经溯洄集》中,发挥了《内经》“亢害承制”理论,指出:“且夫之气也,固亦有亢而自制者,苟亢而不能自制,则汤液、针石、导引之法以为之助”。</p>\n<p>万全是十五世纪的儿科专家,擅长气功养生,对静坐有长期的亲身体会,著有《养生四要》,强调静坐中调心的作用。</p>\n<p>明代中叶的徐春圃编有《古今医统大全》,内中记载了大量古代气功养生经验,其中包括行气等静功和导引等保健功内容。</p>\n<p>同一时期的医药学家李时珍,也在古代气功发展史上写下了光辉的一页。他的《奇经八脉考》初当时喻为练功家和医家的“入室指南”。</p>\n<p>张景岳在《类经》中指出:“若摄生者,必明确气之故……”,阐述了养生与调气的关系。</p>\n<p>明末李中梓,著《删补颐生微论》,介绍了一些修摄方法,并对精、气、神理论和气功方法进行了论述。</p>\n<p>清初的汪仞庵,著《医方集解》附有《勿药元诠》一卷,搜集了一些前人的练功方法,辑有调息、小周天、一秤金诀、金丹秘诀等功法。</p>\n<p>晚清医家黄凯钧,著《一览延龄》,旁征博引,汇集了诸家有关气功养生论述和明清以前气功养生的异文轶事。</p>\n<p>(八)气功养生学的低潮期—半殖民地半封建时期(公元1840年~1949年)</p>\n<p>近百年来,由于清朝封建统治者的腐败无能,帝国主义列强的不断侵入,中国沦为半殖民地半封建社会。统治阶段全盘否定中华民族文化遗产,扼杀中医中药,对祖国传统医学采取民族虚无主义态度,使祖国医学饱受摧残,气功也几乎处于被湮没的境地。</p>\n<p>清代后期,王祖源编著《内功图说》包括十二段锦总诀、图解、分行外功诀、易筋经、却病延年法等。该书主张动静兼修,并有图解加以说明。</p>\n<p>席锡藩编绘的古代内外功图说,详细介绍了诸病导引治病、八段锦、易筋经等图说及按摩调息,总名《内外功图解辑要》。此外,郑观应编《中外卫生要旨》,对排除杂念入静作了简要叙述。</p>\n<p>建国前夕,蒋维乔编《因是子静坐法》对呼吸锻炼和思想集中的养生方法作了简要的叙述,在当时有较大影响。但书中掺杂着一些消极的迷信色调,尤其书中只讲静坐,不讲动功,是一大缺点。</p>\n<p>在讲静坐的书籍中,较为著名的还有丁福保著的《静坐法精义》,对练功有参考价值。陈乾明的《静的修养法》,简明扼要是其特点。杨中一的《指道真诠》则以收集资料丰富见长。</p>\n<p>那时,我国翻译出版了部分日本的静坐书籍。日本在明治后期,曾揿起了静坐热潮。他们的书,在我国有一定影响。</p>\n<p>总之,1949年以前,气功得不到应有的重视和发展,更谈不到普及与推广。</p><p><br></p>","status":0,"pv":1172,"link":"1","createdAt":"2019-03-11 11:19:08","updatedAt":"2024-04-17 18:40:30","field":{},"tags":[]}

article.tags------>[]

news------>[{"id":831,"title":"每天只需一招抬脚功,能降“百种病”!","short_title":"","img":"https://p8.itc.cn/q_70/images03/20220718/a1d679888d4e44f58fb4f3834cb7b40a.jpeg","createdAt":"2023-03-22T12:01:22.000Z","description":"每天晚上,在睡前花15分钟抬抬脚,坚持二、三个月,就可以改善体质、精力倍增,对于生理不适、便秘、胃肠消化不良、尿失禁、前列腺肿大等百种病都有一定的防治作用。","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":727,"title":"道家高人揭秘胎息!(附修炼方法)","short_title":"0","img":null,"createdAt":"2020-09-23T06:02:16.000Z","description":"我国古代医家早就认识到胎息有祛病延年的奇效,并创造了“吐纳”、“龟息”、“气沉丹田”、“胎息”等健身方法。“呼吸到脐,寿与天齐”。这就是养生学家对胎息法的高度评价。","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":722,"title":"握固的秘密","short_title":"0","img":"","createdAt":"2020-08-18T05:40:51.000Z","description":"握固诀又叫婴儿诀,是对婴儿“骨弱筋柔而握固”的生命本原状态的一种“回归”。","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":718,"title":"神奇的全身经络拍打操,每天坚持拍,疾病都怕你","short_title":"0","img":"","createdAt":"2020-07-15T06:14:21.000Z","description":"今天给大家介绍一套拍手操,操作简单,特别适合日常养生保健。希望大家坚持下去,日久见成果!","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":677,"title":"适应环境·养生功","short_title":"0","img":"","createdAt":"2020-03-31T05:10:59.000Z","description":"“新型冠状肺炎”的肆虐不仅给中华民族造成了巨大损失,也给我们留下了深刻的教训。让我们意识到一切疾病源于身体免疫力低下!一切疾病康复的快慢也取决于免疫功能的强弱。","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":536,"title":"疫情期,今早您吐肺音了吗?","short_title":"0","img":"","createdAt":"2020-02-04T20:39:10.000Z","description":"运用人体的发声器官,在与意念、呼吸、势子等其他导引配合下,病人按规律反复吐发特定的声音,以达到治疗疾病,延年益寿的目的,这种方法叫做吐音功法,又叫吐音导引法","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":535,"title":"静坐与健康","short_title":"0","img":"","createdAt":"2020-02-04T19:23:58.000Z","description":"静坐或禅定,是培福培慧的最好办法,我们通过静坐的次第修习,可以提高工作效率,增长智慧,使身心强健,对人生与宇宙能够正确地认识","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":513,"title":"睡前简单观想法","short_title":"0","img":"","createdAt":"2020-01-23T03:57:58.000Z","description":"","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":509,"title":"辟谷养生法及原理","short_title":"0","img":null,"createdAt":"2020-01-22T21:24:19.000Z","description":"一、服气辟谷的原理1、宇宙间本来就存在无穷无尽的能量,只是阴性能量肉眼看不见而已,大道无形,越是无形的(肉眼看不见的)越是高层次的。空气中有70%以上都是氮气,人体肠胃中有一种细菌叫“固氮菌”,可以把空气里的氮气固定在肠胃里,并能将其转化成蛋白质,蛋白质是人体所需要的主要营养,所以,只要掌握了服气的方法,就可以在不吃粮食的情况下维持生存。2、根据“阴阳互根”原理,人体及各种生物都是由阴阳两种物质组合而成的。那么,人体及生物中的各种系统也同样应该有阴阳两套。比如消化系统、视觉系统、神经系统、呼吸系统、生殖系","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":508,"title":"无为祛病法——静坐","short_title":"0","img":"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/shijieqigong/20200123-13-13-33_15481_04.jpg","createdAt":"2020-01-22T20:59:52.000Z","description":"我们生活在世,难免会有各种疾病,一切疾病可分为身病和心病两大类。平时人们往往只重视身病,而忽视心病,更不知身病的主要病因也起源于心。心虚则气弱,心惊则肉跳,心弛则神往,心烦则意乱,心乱则气散,心平则气和。凡执着财、色、名、食、睡等一切贪欲,加之贪而不得,势必生出瞋恚之心,引发愤怒、嫉妒、忧伤、思虑等等不正常的心理。这些混乱的心理导致神志涣散,心态失衡。最终引发气血失调,气滞血瘀,生出种种疾病。","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"}]

hot------>[{"id":460,"title":"三圆式站桩功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":27,"title":"我喜爱习练秦重三先生的三圆式站桩功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":727,"title":"道家高人揭秘胎息!(附修炼方法)","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":722,"title":"握固的秘密","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":536,"title":"疫情期,今早您吐肺音了吗?","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":677,"title":"适应环境·养生功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":151,"title":"这样站桩,很快恢复你的元气!","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":439,"title":"气功疗法和保健(序)","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":508,"title":"无为祛病法——静坐","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":718,"title":"神奇的全身经络拍打操,每天坚持拍,疾病都怕你","path":"/yangshengqigong"}]

imgs------>[{"id":831,"title":"每天只需一招抬脚功,能降“百种病”!","short_title":"","img":"https://p8.itc.cn/q_70/images03/20220718/a1d679888d4e44f58fb4f3834cb7b40a.jpeg","createdAt":"2023-03-22T12:01:22.000Z","description":"每天晚上,在睡前花15分钟抬抬脚,坚持二、三个月,就可以改善体质、精力倍增,对于生理不适、便秘、胃肠消化不良、尿失禁、前列腺肿大等百种病都有一定的防治作用。","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":508,"title":"无为祛病法——静坐","short_title":"0","img":"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/shijieqigong/20200123-13-13-33_15481_04.jpg","createdAt":"2020-01-22T20:59:52.000Z","description":"我们生活在世,难免会有各种疾病,一切疾病可分为身病和心病两大类。平时人们往往只重视身病,而忽视心病,更不知身病的主要病因也起源于心。心虚则气弱,心惊则肉跳,心弛则神往,心烦则意乱,心乱则气散,心平则气和。凡执着财、色、名、食、睡等一切贪欲,加之贪而不得,势必生出瞋恚之心,引发愤怒、嫉妒、忧伤、思虑等等不正常的心理。这些混乱的心理导致神志涣散,心态失衡。最终引发气血失调,气滞血瘀,生出种种疾病。","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"},{"id":444,"title":"第三章 气功锻炼的基本姿式(2)-坐式《气功疗法和保健》","short_title":"0","img":"http://static.hongkongdaily.net/shijieqigong/20190718-21-05-56_15908_3.jpg","createdAt":"2019-07-18T05:08:22.000Z","description":"坐式可分为盘膝和端坐两种:3.2.1 盘膝式 &nbsp;又分为双盘、单盘、自然盘膝三种姿式。双盘作法,先用左腿加于右腿之上,然后再以右腿加于左腿的上面、两脚心向上,两膝紧压软垫,头颈和上身端直,以坐稳舒适为宜。此种姿式,没有功夫的人,很难做到。对于有病的人,若双盘膝很感困难,则可以采用单盘坐法,即以左腿于右腿上,或用右腿放在左腿上,随各人习惯而定,不拘一格。两腿互相重叠,惟上腿足心向上,其余与双盘膝同。如因体弱,单盘仍不能耐坐,可采用自然盘膝,此法以两腿交叉而坐,两脚心各压在腿下(如图4)。妇女可以把两","pinyin":"yangshengqigong","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"}]

pre------>{"id":291,"title":"气功养生学历史简况(3)","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"}

next------>{"id":293,"title":"气功养生学历史简况(5)","name":"养生气功","path":"/yangshengqigong"}