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气功养生学历史简况

2019-03-11 11:12:25 张天戈 阅读(1276)

「导读」气功养生学历史简况

(一)气功养生学的起源—远古至夏商时期(约170万年前~公元前11世纪)

气功起源于生产劳动。它的历史要追溯到没有文字的最原始阶段。原始人在劳动过程中体会到:劳动时付出体力,身体会发热,呼吸加深加快;劳动停息时,随着呼吸的平稳,身体便觉凉爽。这种简单的劳动和静息方式,就是气功动功和静功两种基本形式的起源。从文献来看,气功起源于劳动也可得到证明。如《素问﹒移精变气论》记载:“往古人居禽兽之间,动作以避寒,阴居以避暑。”指出原始人是通过劳动或模仿劳动的运动和静息两种方式来抵御寒暑的侵袭,起到保健作用的。

原始人在长期劳动实践中,在原有的“运动”、“静息”基础上,不断增加一些简单的仿生动作和呼吸运动,如“熊经鸟伸”、“吐故纳新”,逐渐演变成最早的气功形式。这种原始的气功形式,在远古的舞蹈中得到保留。据《吕氏春秋﹒古乐篇》记载:“昔阴康氏之始,阴多滞伏而湛积,水道壅塞,不行其源,民气郁阏而滞著,筋骨瑟缩不达,故作为舞以宣导之”。可见,我国气功最早是以舞的形式出现的。这种“舞”的基本作用是宣达腠理,通利关节,适用于风寒湿所致的各种病证。“舞”字在甲骨文中象一个人两手拿着牛尾而舞的样子,说明舞的内容与仿生动作有关。

随着时间的推移,经过多少代人的不断实践,早期的原始气功形式逐渐演变为“挢引案机”、“移精变气”,独立地用于医疗保健。据《史记﹒扁鹊仓公列传》记载:上古名医俞跗擅长应用挢引、案杌疗法。俞跗是黄帝时的名将,说明气功最晚在黄帝时代就已经成为完全独立的医疗保健手段了。这在《内经》一书中也可找到佐证:“中央者,其地平以湿,天地所以生万物也众,其民杂食而不劳,故其病多痿厥寒热,其治宜导引按跷,故导引按跷者,亦从中央出也”。中央,指中原地带,地处黄河流域,正是黄帝部族当时活动的中心。这就再次有力的证明气功发祥于黄河流域,肇始于中华民族。

随着导引动功的产生,静功之法也开始形成。《黄帝内经》记载:“古之治病,唯其移精变气”,就是移易精神,改变气血紊乱状态的静功疗法。

(二)气功养生学的形成期—西周至战国时期(公元前11世纪~公元前3世纪)

西周至战国这一时期,在许多典籍里已有不少关于气功的文字记载,为气功学的形成奠定了基础。《周易》中艮卦所载内容,是内视法的萌芽,反映出殷周之际静功养生的一个侧面。《艮﹒卦辞》说:“艮其背,不获其身,行其庭,不见其人。”艮,训诂为止,意为注视;艮背,即返观。艮卦之意,旨在阐发返观内照之法,来防止动欲。这一思想,直接影响到后世意念引导法的形成与发展。

再就是老庄的“抱一守中”、“坐忘心斋”的修道功夫,为静功内养开了先河。老子曾做过周王朝的史官,相传他“修道而养寿”,活了二百多岁。“著书上下篇,言道德之意五千余言”,这就是《老子》一书,亦即《道德经》。书中“虚其心,实其腹”,“绵绵若存,用之不勤”,“致虚极,守静笃”,“专心致柔能婴儿乎”等除具一定哲学观点外,对练功亦有指导意义,为后人所重视。

庄子继承和发展了老子的“道法自然”观,著有《庄子》一书。内中除介绍“坐忘”这一静养方法外,对导引行气亦有记载。导引、行气,是两种古老的气功方法,它的实践可追溯到远古时代,但它的命名却是从春秋战国之际才开始的。导引,简称为“引”,是当时动功一类总称,包括按跷等保健气功。行气是当时静功一类总称,包括服气、食气等法。据“庄子﹒刻意”记述:“吹呴呼吸,吐故纳新,熊经鸟伸,为寿而已矣。此导引之事,养形之人,彭祖寿考者之所好也。”所谓吹呴呼吸,吐故纳新,是导引中的调息锻炼;熊经鸟伸则是导引中的调身锻炼,说明当时导引术主要由呼吸运动和仿生运动组成。

行气,是专讲调息凝神的功夫。我国现存早早的气功专,战国时代的《行气玉佩铭》记述:“行气,深则蓄,蓄则伸,伸则下,下则定,定则固,固则萌,萌则长,长则退,退则天。天几舂在上,地几舂在下。顺则生,逆则死”。全文用字不及半百,却生动地描述了行气练功的全过程,它标志着行气法在战国时代已达到了相当的水平。

《黄帝内经》一书的诸多记载集中地反映了战国至秦汉之际气功在医疗保健事业的情况。从导引来说,书中的记载就多达14处,治疗的病症多达十几种,有痞证、痹证、热病、伤筋等等,包括内、外两科和急、慢性两类疾病。行气法也普遍用于临床实践。如《素问﹒上古天真论》:“恬淡虚无,真气从之,精神内守,病安从来”;《生气通天论》:“圣人传精神,服天气,而通神明”;“清静则肉腠闭拒,虽有大风苛毒,弗之能害”。纵观《内经》所述导引、行气两大功法的应用,说明在战国时期气功已经成为行之有效的医疗保健手段,并为后世动静功法理论的发展,作了重要的奠基。

(三)气功养生学的成长期—秦汉时期(公元前221年~公元265年)

古代气功,到了秦汉之际,有了很大发展。《吕氏春秋》除记述了先秦有关气功资料外,还提出了“流水不腐,户枢不蠹”的运动生命观,主张治身应、做到“精气欲其行”,使“精气日新,邪气日尽”来保持健康。这些观点,对秦汉导引术的发展产生了巨大的影响。

1973年长沙马王堆汉墓中出土了久已亡佚的古代医学文献,其中有《导引图》和《却谷食气篇》,给研究古代气功提供了丰富资料。

《导引图》中有男有女,有老有少,以徒手为主,有少数几个持物器。有的有动作名称,如龙登、印滹、堂狼、信等;有的讲了简单作用,如引漆痛引月去 责任引温病,有两处注明配合呼吸,如仰呼、猿滹,内容丰富多彩。

《却谷食气篇》是描述食气为主的古代练功佚书。食气又称服气,即呼吸锻炼。佚书中记述的方法是:“食气者为呴吹,则以始卧与始兴。凡呴中息而吹,年廿者朝廿暮廿,二日之暮二百,年卅者朝卅暮卅,三日之暮三百,以此数准之”。这种食气法,一般在有如下情况时进行:“为首重、足轻、体轸,则呴吹之,视利止。”此外,书中还讲到如何掌握不同季节的特点和4种不宜进行食气的气候等。这些内容为后世气功的发展奠定了基础,同时又可作为今天气功实践的借鉴。


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article------>{"id":289,"cid":5,"sub_cid":"","title":"气功养生学历史简况","short_title":"0","tag_id":"","attr":"","seo_title":"0","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"1","source":"网络","author":"张天戈","description":"气功养生学历史简况","img":"","content":"<p><span style=\"display: inline !important;\">(一)气功养生学的起源—远古至夏商时期(约170万年前~公元前11世纪)</span></p>\n<p>气功起源于生产劳动。它的历史要追溯到没有文字的最原始阶段。原始人在劳动过程中体会到:劳动时付出体力,身体会发热,呼吸加深加快;劳动停息时,随着呼吸的平稳,身体便觉凉爽。这种简单的劳动和静息方式,就是气功动功和静功两种基本形式的起源。从文献来看,气功起源于劳动也可得到证明。如《素问﹒移精变气论》记载:“往古人居禽兽之间,动作以避寒,阴居以避暑。”指出原始人是通过劳动或模仿劳动的运动和静息两种方式来抵御寒暑的侵袭,起到保健作用的。</p>\n<p>原始人在长期劳动实践中,在原有的“运动”、“静息”基础上,不断增加一些简单的仿生动作和呼吸运动,如“熊经鸟伸”、“吐故纳新”,逐渐演变成最早的气功形式。这种原始的气功形式,在远古的舞蹈中得到保留。据《吕氏春秋﹒古乐篇》记载:“昔阴康氏之始,阴多滞伏而湛积,水道壅塞,不行其源,民气郁阏而滞著,筋骨瑟缩不达,故作为舞以宣导之”。可见,我国气功最早是以舞的形式出现的。这种“舞”的基本作用是宣达腠理,通利关节,适用于风寒湿所致的各种病证。“舞”字在甲骨文中象一个人两手拿着牛尾而舞的样子,说明舞的内容与仿生动作有关。</p>\n<p>随着时间的推移,经过多少代人的不断实践,早期的原始气功形式逐渐演变为“挢引案机”、“移精变气”,独立地用于医疗保健。据《史记﹒扁鹊仓公列传》记载:上古名医俞跗擅长应用挢引、案杌疗法。俞跗是黄帝时的名将,说明气功最晚在黄帝时代就已经成为完全独立的医疗保健手段了。这在《内经》一书中也可找到佐证:“中央者,其地平以湿,天地所以生万物也众,其民杂食而不劳,故其病多痿厥寒热,其治宜导引按跷,故导引按跷者,亦从中央出也”。中央,指中原地带,地处黄河流域,正是黄帝部族当时活动的中心。这就再次有力的证明气功发祥于黄河流域,肇始于中华民族。</p>\n<p>随着导引动功的产生,静功之法也开始形成。《黄帝内经》记载:“古之治病,唯其移精变气”,就是移易精神,改变气血紊乱状态的静功疗法。</p>\n<p>(二)气功养生学的形成期—西周至战国时期(公元前11世纪~公元前3世纪)</p>\n<p>西周至战国这一时期,在许多典籍里已有不少关于气功的文字记载,为气功学的形成奠定了基础。《周易》中艮卦所载内容,是内视法的萌芽,反映出殷周之际静功养生的一个侧面。《艮﹒卦辞》说:“艮其背,不获其身,行其庭,不见其人。”艮,训诂为止,意为注视;艮背,即返观。艮卦之意,旨在阐发返观内照之法,来防止动欲。这一思想,直接影响到后世意念引导法的形成与发展。</p>\n<p>再就是老庄的“抱一守中”、“坐忘心斋”的修道功夫,为静功内养开了先河。老子曾做过周王朝的史官,相传他“修道而养寿”,活了二百多岁。“著书上下篇,言道德之意五千余言”,这就是《老子》一书,亦即《道德经》。书中“虚其心,实其腹”,“绵绵若存,用之不勤”,“致虚极,守静笃”,“专心致柔能婴儿乎”等除具一定哲学观点外,对练功亦有指导意义,为后人所重视。</p>\n<p>庄子继承和发展了老子的“道法自然”观,著有《庄子》一书。内中除介绍“坐忘”这一静养方法外,对导引行气亦有记载。导引、行气,是两种古老的气功方法,它的实践可追溯到远古时代,但它的命名却是从春秋战国之际才开始的。导引,简称为“引”,是当时动功一类总称,包括按跷等保健气功。行气是当时静功一类总称,包括服气、食气等法。据“庄子﹒刻意”记述:“吹呴呼吸,吐故纳新,熊经鸟伸,为寿而已矣。此导引之事,养形之人,彭祖寿考者之所好也。”所谓吹呴呼吸,吐故纳新,是导引中的调息锻炼;熊经鸟伸则是导引中的调身锻炼,说明当时导引术主要由呼吸运动和仿生运动组成。</p>\n<p>行气,是专讲调息凝神的功夫。我国现存早早的气功专,战国时代的《行气玉佩铭》记述:“行气,深则蓄,蓄则伸,伸则下,下则定,定则固,固则萌,萌则长,长则退,退则天。天几舂在上,地几舂在下。顺则生,逆则死”。全文用字不及半百,却生动地描述了行气练功的全过程,它标志着行气法在战国时代已达到了相当的水平。</p>\n<p>《黄帝内经》一书的诸多记载集中地反映了战国至秦汉之际气功在医疗保健事业的情况。从导引来说,书中的记载就多达14处,治疗的病症多达十几种,有痞证、痹证、热病、伤筋等等,包括内、外两科和急、慢性两类疾病。行气法也普遍用于临床实践。如《素问﹒上古天真论》:“恬淡虚无,真气从之,精神内守,病安从来”;《生气通天论》:“圣人传精神,服天气,而通神明”;“清静则肉腠闭拒,虽有大风苛毒,弗之能害”。纵观《内经》所述导引、行气两大功法的应用,说明在战国时期气功已经成为行之有效的医疗保健手段,并为后世动静功法理论的发展,作了重要的奠基。</p>\n<p>(三)气功养生学的成长期—秦汉时期(公元前221年~公元265年)</p>\n<p>古代气功,到了秦汉之际,有了很大发展。《吕氏春秋》除记述了先秦有关气功资料外,还提出了“流水不腐,户枢不蠹”的运动生命观,主张治身应、做到“精气欲其行”,使“精气日新,邪气日尽”来保持健康。这些观点,对秦汉导引术的发展产生了巨大的影响。</p>\n<p>1973年长沙马王堆汉墓中出土了久已亡佚的古代医学文献,其中有《导引图》和《却谷食气篇》,给研究古代气功提供了丰富资料。</p>\n<p>《导引图》中有男有女,有老有少,以徒手为主,有少数几个持物器。有的有动作名称,如龙登、印滹、堂狼、信等;有的讲了简单作用,如引漆痛引月去 \n责任引温病,有两处注明配合呼吸,如仰呼、猿滹,内容丰富多彩。</p>\n<p>《却谷食气篇》是描述食气为主的古代练功佚书。食气又称服气,即呼吸锻炼。佚书中记述的方法是:“食气者为呴吹,则以始卧与始兴。凡呴中息而吹,年廿者朝廿暮廿,二日之暮二百,年卅者朝卅暮卅,三日之暮三百,以此数准之”。这种食气法,一般在有如下情况时进行:“为首重、足轻、体轸,则呴吹之,视利止。”此外,书中还讲到如何掌握不同季节的特点和4种不宜进行食气的气候等。这些内容为后世气功的发展奠定了基础,同时又可作为今天气功实践的借鉴。</p><p><br></p>","status":0,"pv":1276,"link":"1","createdAt":"2019-03-11 11:12:25","updatedAt":"2024-04-16 11:01:00","field":{},"tags":[]}

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