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你必须知道的太极拳拳理

2018-07-24 01:15:27 admin 阅读(3496)

「导读」无极生太极、太极生两仪、两仪生四象、四象生八卦

太极为家三大拳种(形意、太极、八卦)之一,之所以在悠久的历史长河中传承至今,不在慢腾腾的外在表现形式,而在内含一套独具特色的拳学理论。归纳概括,即阴阳学说、八卦学说和五行学说。

古人讲“无极生太极、太极生两仪、两仪生四象、四象生八卦”。所谓无极,即迷迷茫茫,混混沌沌,在人则为腹内中和之气;所谓太极,即动静变化,开者为动,合者为静,在人则为伸缩卷放;所谓两仪,即阴阳二气,阴动阳静,阴息阳生,在人则为虚实变化;所谓四象,即前后左右,意注一向,防守四方,在人则为进退顾盼(对应金木水火土);所谓八卦,即太极八手,棚捋挤按,采挒肘靠,在人则为攻防之法。

简而言之,阴阳学说指的是身体的虚实变化,八卦学说指的是手上俯仰翻转,五行学说指的是脚下进退闪躲。以上只是概说,内之精妙,不可尽言,望学者细心揣摩,心悟体会。


★阴阳学说。“一阴一阳谓之道”。阴阳学说是古代劳动人民认识自然、利用自然、改造自然的理论工具,具有朴素的唯物论观点,相当于现在的马克思辩证唯物主义哲学。古人根据阴阳、动静的运动变化规律,在无极的空圈内画了一对动静旋转开合对称的黑白鱼,分别代表阴阳二气,黒者为阴仪,白者为阳仪。黒中含一白点代表阴中有阳,白中含一黒点代表阳中有阴,这就是相传至今的阴阳太极图。

“阴阳者,天地之道也,万物之纲纪,变化之父母,生杀之本始”。要想理解、掌握太极拳,必须掌握阴阳学说。太极拳吸收引进了阴阳的辩证哲理,具备以下三个特点:

一是动静相兼。静是阴,动是阳,动从静中生,阳从阴中来。太极拳是静中求动,动中求静,动静相兼的运动,无论是先求无极的静中求动,不是行拳走架的动中求静,都以动、静二字为根本。

二是对立统一。太极拳每个动作中的开与合、虚与实、动与静、柔与刚的变化,既对立又统一。两者相互联系,相互依存,相互作用,使运动处于统一的整体之中。所以太极拳强调“有前必有后,有上必有下,有左必有右,有内必有外”的对称平衡运动规律。

三是相互转化。阴和阳是矛盾的双方,以各自的对立面为条件,互相影响,阴阳互济,虚实互助,刚柔相济,蓄发相变,互相转化。如太极拳中欲上先下,欲左先右,欲前先后,欲开先合,虚中有实,实中有虚,柔中有刚,刚中含柔,化中有发,发中有化等理论,都说明了太极的本质特征是:阴中有阳,阳中有阴,阴阳相济。

★八卦学说。是古代贤哲仰观看,俯察地,近取诸身,远取诸物的智慧和经验总结,是对宇宙万物、社会人事进行哲学思辩后创立的“以类万物之情,以通神明之德”的符号表述体系,包涵了抽象思维和形象思维的认识论和方法论。它用八种符号概括万事万物的存在、属性、状态和转化,以及万事万物之间的关系。八卦,即乾、兑、离、震、巽、坎、艮、坤;八种物象,即天、泽、火、雷、风、水、山、地;八卦序数,即1、2、3、4、5、6、7、8。古人兴南子曾云:宇宙虽大,不离其数,万物虽多,不离其旬。明象数者,知宇宙万化,通天下万变。

关于八卦的图式,古人留下了先天八卦图和后天八卦图。传说先天八卦图为伏羲所画,故称“伏羲八卦图”;后天八卦图为文王所制,故称“文王八卦图”。

太极拳用的是先天八卦图,即挤东、按西、捋南、掤北、肘东北、靠东南、采西北、挒西南。太极八法与八卦的对应关系是:

采求乾三连,挒行坤六段。捋要离中虚,掤填坎中满。

挤是震仰盂,肘为艮覆碗。按劲兑上缺,靠劲巽下断。


“劲源心法要诀”明确如下:

掤劲命门找环跳,捋劲食指画眉毛;

挤劲夹脊找前脚,按劲凭栏楼下瞧;

采劲玄关找肩井,挒劲意在登后脚;

肘劲劳宫肩井合,靠劲玉枕扛大包。

★五行学说。认为宇宙间的一切事物都是由金、木、水、火、土五种物质的运动与变化构成的。古人把五种物质的属性加以抽象推演,用来说明整个物质世界,并认为这五种物质不仅具有相互影响、互为相生的关系,而且是不断变化与运动的。

五行学说主要以五行相生、相克关系来说明事物之间的相互关系。相生,即相互资生和助长;相克,即相互制约和克制。

五行相生关系是:木生火、火生土、土生金、金生水、水生木

五行相克关系是:木克土、土克水、水克火、火克金、金克木

五步与五行的对应关系是:进步为坎为水,方位正北;退步为离为火,方位正南;左顾为震为木,方位正东;右盼为兑为金,方位正西;中定五行为土,方位正中央。

拳诀有云:

进时火燃起,处处喷火苗。退时柔似水,风起漩涡妙。

左顾风摆柳,右盼似鞭稍。中土不离位,神仙也没招。

最后需要说明的是,无论阴阳学说也好,还是八卦学说、五行学说也好,虽然有助于丰富太极拳的文化内涵,有助于加深对太极拳的技术理论的理解,但不能故弄玄虚,生搬硬套,还是应把主要精力放在理解基本理论基础上的练习、练习、再练习,唯有如此,才是练习太极拳的根本,切不可本末倒置。


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article------>{"id":202,"cid":6,"sub_cid":"","title":"你必须知道的太极拳拳理","short_title":"0","tag_id":"","attr":"","seo_title":"0","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"1","source":"中国太极拳网","author":"admin","description":"无极生太极、太极生两仪、两仪生四象、四象生八卦","img":"","content":"<p>太极为家三大拳种(形意、太极、八卦)之一,之所以在悠久的历史长河中传承至今,不在慢腾腾的外在表现形式,而在内含一套独具特色的拳学理论。归纳概括,即阴阳学说、八卦学说和五行学说。</p><p>古人讲“无极生太极、太极生两仪、两仪生四象、四象生八卦”。所谓无极,即迷迷茫茫,混混沌沌,在人则为腹内中和之气;所谓太极,即动静变化,开者为动,合者为静,在人则为伸缩卷放;所谓两仪,即阴阳二气,阴动阳静,阴息阳生,在人则为虚实变化;所谓四象,即前后左右,意注一向,防守四方,在人则为进退顾盼(对应金木水火土);所谓八卦,即太极八手,棚捋挤按,采挒肘靠,在人则为攻防之法。</p><p>简而言之,阴阳学说指的是身体的虚实变化,八卦学说指的是手上俯仰翻转,五行学说指的是脚下进退闪躲。以上只是概说,内之精妙,不可尽言,望学者细心揣摩,心悟体会。</p><p align=\"center\"><img src=\"/public/uploads/qigong/20180724-09-17-24_12402_1531914640.png\" style=\"max-width:100%;\"><br></p><p>★阴阳学说。“一阴一阳谓之道”。阴阳学说是古代劳动人民认识自然、利用自然、改造自然的理论工具,具有朴素的唯物论观点,相当于现在的马克思辩证唯物主义哲学。古人根据阴阳、动静的运动变化规律,在无极的空圈内画了一对动静旋转开合对称的黑白鱼,分别代表阴阳二气,黒者为阴仪,白者为阳仪。黒中含一白点代表阴中有阳,白中含一黒点代表阳中有阴,这就是相传至今的阴阳太极图。</p><p>“阴阳者,天地之道也,万物之纲纪,变化之父母,生杀之本始”。要想理解、掌握太极拳,必须掌握阴阳学说。太极拳吸收引进了阴阳的辩证哲理,具备以下三个特点:</p><p>一是动静相兼。静是阴,动是阳,动从静中生,阳从阴中来。太极拳是静中求动,动中求静,动静相兼的运动,无论是先求无极的静中求动,不是行拳走架的动中求静,都以动、静二字为根本。</p><p>二是对立统一。太极拳每个动作中的开与合、虚与实、动与静、柔与刚的变化,既对立又统一。两者相互联系,相互依存,相互作用,使运动处于统一的整体之中。所以太极拳强调“有前必有后,有上必有下,有左必有右,有内必有外”的对称平衡运动规律。</p><p>三是相互转化。阴和阳是矛盾的双方,以各自的对立面为条件,互相影响,阴阳互济,虚实互助,刚柔相济,蓄发相变,互相转化。如太极拳中欲上先下,欲左先右,欲前先后,欲开先合,虚中有实,实中有虚,柔中有刚,刚中含柔,化中有发,发中有化等理论,都说明了太极的本质特征是:阴中有阳,阳中有阴,阴阳相济。</p><p>★八卦学说。是古代贤哲仰观看,俯察地,近取诸身,远取诸物的智慧和经验总结,是对宇宙万物、社会人事进行哲学思辩后创立的“以类万物之情,以通神明之德”的符号表述体系,包涵了抽象思维和形象思维的认识论和方法论。它用八种符号概括万事万物的存在、属性、状态和转化,以及万事万物之间的关系。八卦,即乾、兑、离、震、巽、坎、艮、坤;八种物象,即天、泽、火、雷、风、水、山、地;八卦序数,即1、2、3、4、5、6、7、8。古人兴南子曾云:宇宙虽大,不离其数,万物虽多,不离其旬。明象数者,知宇宙万化,通天下万变。</p><p>关于八卦的图式,古人留下了先天八卦图和后天八卦图。传说先天八卦图为伏羲所画,故称“伏羲八卦图”;后天八卦图为文王所制,故称“文王八卦图”。</p><p>太极拳用的是先天八卦图,即挤东、按西、捋南、掤北、肘东北、靠东南、采西北、挒西南。太极八法与八卦的对应关系是:</p><p>采求乾三连,挒行坤六段。捋要离中虚,掤填坎中满。</p><p>挤是震仰盂,肘为艮覆碗。按劲兑上缺,靠劲巽下断。</p><p style=\"text-align: center;\"><img src=\"/public/uploads/qigong/20180724-09-17-58_10388_1232-11011G52S761.jpg\" style=\"max-width:100%;\"><br></p><p style=\"text-align: center;\">“劲源心法要诀”明确如下:</p><p style=\"text-align: center;\">掤劲命门找环跳,捋劲食指画眉毛;</p><p style=\"text-align: center;\">挤劲夹脊找前脚,按劲凭栏楼下瞧;</p><p style=\"text-align: center;\">采劲玄关找肩井,挒劲意在登后脚;</p><p style=\"text-align: center;\">肘劲劳宫肩井合,靠劲玉枕扛大包。</p><p>★五行学说。认为宇宙间的一切事物都是由金、木、水、火、土五种物质的运动与变化构成的。古人把五种物质的属性加以抽象推演,用来说明整个物质世界,并认为这五种物质不仅具有相互影响、互为相生的关系,而且是不断变化与运动的。</p><p>五行学说主要以五行相生、相克关系来说明事物之间的相互关系。相生,即相互资生和助长;相克,即相互制约和克制。</p><p>五行相生关系是:木生火、火生土、土生金、金生水、水生木</p><p>五行相克关系是:木克土、土克水、水克火、火克金、金克木</p><p>五步与五行的对应关系是:进步为坎为水,方位正北;退步为离为火,方位正南;左顾为震为木,方位正东;右盼为兑为金,方位正西;中定五行为土,方位正中央。</p><p>拳诀有云:</p><p>进时火燃起,处处喷火苗。退时柔似水,风起漩涡妙。</p><p>左顾风摆柳,右盼似鞭稍。中土不离位,神仙也没招。</p><p>\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n</p><p>最后需要说明的是,无论阴阳学说也好,还是八卦学说、五行学说也好,虽然有助于丰富太极拳的文化内涵,有助于加深对太极拳的技术理论的理解,但不能故弄玄虚,生搬硬套,还是应把主要精力放在理解基本理论基础上的练习、练习、再练习,唯有如此,才是练习太极拳的根本,切不可本末倒置。</p><p><br></p>","status":0,"pv":3496,"link":"1","createdAt":"2018-07-24 01:15:27","updatedAt":"2024-06-21 08:04:42","field":{},"tags":[]}

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