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“气”话连篇75 | “内丹”一词源何处

2022-06-16 11:36:36 admin 阅读(626)

「导读」“内丹”是传统气功的一个常用术语。“丹”的本义是辰砂、朱砂,《说文解字》说“丹,巴越之赤石也。象采丹井。”很久之前,试图寻找“长生不老”药的人,将朱砂、铅汞等当时人们并不熟知的“重金属”,通过一定的方法加以冶炼,认为由此获得的“成品”就是具有使人“长生不老”功效的神丹妙药,所以将此称之为“还丹”“神丹”。

“气”话连篇七十五

“内丹”一词源何处

“内丹”是传统气功的一个常用术语。“丹”的本义是辰砂、朱砂,《说文解字》说“丹,巴越之赤石也。象采丹井。”很久之前,试图寻找“长生不老”药的人,将朱砂、铅汞等当时人们并不熟知的“重金属”,通过一定的方法加以冶炼,认为由此获得的“成品”就是具有使人“长生不老”功效的神丹妙药,所以将此称之为“还丹”“神丹”。当然,由于重金属具有很大的毒性,服食后的毒副作用是可想而知的。“神丹”不神、“还丹”未能奏效的事实教育了追求健康长寿的人们,这种“丹”的作用靠不住。于是,他们转向原本就存在于体内的“药”,并以此“炼”就真正的“丹”。为了将两种截然不同的“丹”加以区别,古人将以朱砂、铅汞等为原料炼成的“丹”称为“外丹”,而将以体内精气神为“原料”通过自我锻炼成就的“丹”称为“内丹”。正如约成书于唐宋时期的《通幽诀》所说,“气能存生,内丹也;药能固形,外丹也”。但是,作为气功术语的“内丹”一词,最早究竟出自何时、何处呢?从现有资料来分析,“内丹”之源,至少有两种不同的说法。

1.“内丹”的“道源说”

刘天君主编的全国中医药行业高等中医药教育规划教材《中医气功学》,虽然没有直接提出这一说法,但实际上是这一说法的主要倡导者。该书在阐述“气功”一词的出处时写到:“据文献考证,‘气功’一词最早见于晋代道士许逊所著的《净明宗教录》一书。《净明宗教录·松沙记》云:‘学道之士,初广布阴骘,先行气功,持内丹长生久视之法,气成之后,方修大药。’”

王卜雄、周世荣著的《中国气功学术发展史》(湖南科学技术出版社,1989年)也认为,是许逊最早提出了“内丹”一词,稍有不同的是,他们认为出自许氏的《灵剑子》:“凡服气调咽用内气,号曰内丹。”

2.“内丹”的“佛源说”

但以上海市气功研究所马济人先生为代表的一些学者,对此提出不同意见。马氏在《论气功史研究的方法问题》一文(发表于《中国气功》1987年第一期)中指出:“……北宋之前较早之许逊传记中,未有言许逊撰《灵剑子》者,宋以前书目亦未见著录。自北宋末年元初,在道教中逐渐形成宣扬‘净明忠孝之道’的‘净明道’派。此派奉许逊为祖师,同时就出现了多种署名为许逊的著作。最先著录《灵剑子》的是南宋初年之《秘书省续四库阙书目》和《通志》。由此说《灵剑子》是托名许逊,实为北宋末年净明派道士所造作。同时,《灵剑子》或《净明宗教录》中的《沙松记》中所提及的‘气功’一词,也不能定为晋代已经出现。”关于许逊这个人,《宗教词典》是这样介绍的:“东晋道士。字敬之。汝南人,家南昌。年二十学道于吴孟,尽传其秘,后举孝廉,曾为旌阳县令。据说政绩卓著,吏民悦服。见晋室纷乱,弃官东归,周游江湖。传说东晋宁康二年(公元374年)在南昌西山,全家四十二口拔宅飞升。”但该书没有提及许氏的著作。

马济人认为,“内丹”一词,可能出自慧思的《立誓愿文》(见马济人主编的《实用中医气功学》,上海科学技术出版社,1992年)。慧思在《立誓愿文》写到:“我今入山修习苦行,忏悔破戒障道罪,今身及先身是罪悉忏悔,为护法故求长寿命,不愿生天及余趣,愿诸贤圣佐助我,得好芝草及神丹,疗治众病除饥渴,常得经修诸禅,愿得深山静处,足神丹药修此愿,借外丹力修内丹。”这可能是“内丹”的最早出处。杨福程也持这一观点(见林雅谷主编的《中华气功大全》,南京大学出版社,1993年)。关于慧思,《宗教词典》是这样介绍的:“南北朝僧人。天台宗三祖……既重视禅法践行,也重视义理推究,“昼谈义理,夜便思择”“定慧双开”。著作多半是口授的讲义,由门徒笔记整理而成……自著的有《立誓愿文》一卷。弟子甚多,智顗最著名。”

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article------>{"id":794,"cid":1,"sub_cid":"","title":"“气”话连篇75 | “内丹”一词源何处","short_title":"0","tag_id":"","attr":"1,2","seo_title":"0","seo_keywords":"","seo_description":"1","source":"网络","author":"admin","description":"“内丹”是传统气功的一个常用术语。“丹”的本义是辰砂、朱砂,《说文解字》说“丹,巴越之赤石也。象采丹井。”很久之前,试图寻找“长生不老”药的人,将朱砂、铅汞等当时人们并不熟知的“重金属”,通过一定的方法加以冶炼,认为由此获得的“成品”就是具有使人“长生不老”功效的神丹妙药,所以将此称之为“还丹”“神丹”。","img":"","content":"<p>“气”话连篇七十五</p><p>“内丹”一词源何处</p><p>“内丹”是传统气功的一个常用术语。“丹”的本义是辰砂、朱砂,《说文解字》说“丹,巴越之赤石也。象采丹井。”很久之前,试图寻找“长生不老”药的人,将朱砂、铅汞等当时人们并不熟知的“重金属”,通过一定的方法加以冶炼,认为由此获得的“成品”就是具有使人“长生不老”功效的神丹妙药,所以将此称之为“还丹”“神丹”。当然,由于重金属具有很大的毒性,服食后的毒副作用是可想而知的。“神丹”不神、“还丹”未能奏效的事实教育了追求健康长寿的人们,这种“丹”的作用靠不住。于是,他们转向原本就存在于体内的“药”,并以此“炼”就真正的“丹”。为了将两种截然不同的“丹”加以区别,古人将以朱砂、铅汞等为原料炼成的“丹”称为“外丹”,而将以体内精气神为“原料”通过自我锻炼成就的“丹”称为“内丹”。正如约成书于唐宋时期的《通幽诀》所说,“气能存生,内丹也;药能固形,外丹也”。但是,作为气功术语的“内丹”一词,最早究竟出自何时、何处呢?从现有资料来分析,“内丹”之源,至少有两种不同的说法。</p><p>1.“内丹”的“道源说”</p><p>刘天君主编的全国中医药行业高等中医药教育规划教材《中医气功学》,虽然没有直接提出这一说法,但实际上是这一说法的主要倡导者。该书在阐述“气功”一词的出处时写到:“据文献考证,‘气功’一词最早见于晋代道士许逊所著的《净明宗教录》一书。《净明宗教录·松沙记》云:‘学道之士,初广布阴骘,先行气功,持内丹长生久视之法,气成之后,方修大药。’”</p><p>王卜雄、周世荣著的《中国气功学术发展史》(湖南科学技术出版社,1989年)也认为,是许逊最早提出了“内丹”一词,稍有不同的是,他们认为出自许氏的《灵剑子》:“凡服气调咽用内气,号曰内丹。”</p><p>2.“内丹”的“佛源说”</p><p>但以上海市气功研究所马济人先生为代表的一些学者,对此提出不同意见。马氏在《论气功史研究的方法问题》一文(发表于《中国气功》1987年第一期)中指出:“……北宋之前较早之许逊传记中,未有言许逊撰《灵剑子》者,宋以前书目亦未见著录。自北宋末年元初,在道教中逐渐形成宣扬‘净明忠孝之道’的‘净明道’派。此派奉许逊为祖师,同时就出现了多种署名为许逊的著作。最先著录《灵剑子》的是南宋初年之《秘书省续四库阙书目》和《通志》。由此说《灵剑子》是托名许逊,实为北宋末年净明派道士所造作。同时,《灵剑子》或《净明宗教录》中的《沙松记》中所提及的‘气功’一词,也不能定为晋代已经出现。”关于许逊这个人,《宗教词典》是这样介绍的:“东晋道士。字敬之。汝南人,家南昌。年二十学道于吴孟,尽传其秘,后举孝廉,曾为旌阳县令。据说政绩卓著,吏民悦服。见晋室纷乱,弃官东归,周游江湖。传说东晋宁康二年(公元374年)在南昌西山,全家四十二口拔宅飞升。”但该书没有提及许氏的著作。</p><p>\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n</p><p>马济人认为,“内丹”一词,可能出自慧思的《立誓愿文》(见马济人主编的《实用中医气功学》,上海科学技术出版社,1992年)。慧思在《立誓愿文》写到:“我今入山修习苦行,忏悔破戒障道罪,今身及先身是罪悉忏悔,为护法故求长寿命,不愿生天及余趣,愿诸贤圣佐助我,得好芝草及神丹,疗治众病除饥渴,常得经修诸禅,愿得深山静处,足神丹药修此愿,借外丹力修内丹。”这可能是“内丹”的最早出处。杨福程也持这一观点(见林雅谷主编的《中华气功大全》,南京大学出版社,1993年)。关于慧思,《宗教词典》是这样介绍的:“南北朝僧人。天台宗三祖……既重视禅法践行,也重视义理推究,“昼谈义理,夜便思择”“定慧双开”。著作多半是口授的讲义,由门徒笔记整理而成……自著的有《立誓愿文》一卷。弟子甚多,智顗最著名。”</p>","status":0,"pv":626,"link":"1","createdAt":"2022-06-16 11:36:36","updatedAt":"2024-06-20 23:51:00","field":{},"tags":[]}

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